Category Archives: Nwerong

Why and how Sehm Mbinglo I emerged Nso Fon in 1993

The Paramount Fon Of Nso

The enthronement machinations that led to the rise of Sehm Mbinglo I to the Nso throne are no secret to the Nso people again. As one whose father, Taa wo Faanjang, was one of the key actors in the enthronement Council, and having taken to myself to follow up keenly the intricacies that were involved, I recorded the following as the machinations that bedeviled the process:

-The sudden and unexpected “disappearance” of Fon Ngah Bi’fon III left the King makers and the Nso people quite confused as to the choice of the successor. This came from the fact that the Nso succession practice does not permit the throne to be vacant for more than a day. It should be noted that Fon Ngah Bi’fon III hours before his disappearance in the night was seen around town in his car doing his usual transactions. It was therefore in shock that the Nso people Rose to the sound of the “Ngem” announcing that the Nso Sun had set. This announcement set the King makers the more in confusion.

That was when the enthronement machinations started as potential candidates and their supporters entered into conclaves to design strategies to cause their choices to be accepted. 

Among the potential princes were Shey Kee from Mantum, Lawyer Gabriel Mbinglo, Shey Ayori and Prince Patrick Mbinkar Fondzeyuf. Of these Princes, the ones with political and financial backing were Shey Kee and Lawyer Mbinglo. Shey Kee had the backing from business and political gurus like Shey Isaac Lukong whose position was implicitly that of the Administration and Government. He was equally backed by Shufaay Ndzeendzev. Shey Kee was described as the CPDM choice. Understanding the political mindset of the Nso people in the early 90s with the prevailing political atmosphere in Cameroon as a whole and the Northwest Region in particular, coupled with the “hatred” against the militants of the party, it was logical that Shey Kee’s camp had to work extra-hard to succeed. The arrival of Sultan Ibrahim Mbombo Njoya, added to the suspicion that a CPDM candidate was going to be imposed on the Nso people, reason why the resistance became stiff.

Lawyer Mbinglo had a similar had his own support as well in Shufaay Ndzeendzev but not from the Administration or ruling party, because he was a noted militant of the SDF. Even as SDF, he could not have the support of Nwerong because he openly supported the Ngiri against Nwerong during the 1989 Mbor Crisis. According to one of the King Makers this researcher spoke with, Lawyer Mbinglo lost the trust of Nwerong on the day the Nchelav pursued Yeengiri to Squares and removed the Mbor (the emollient leaf) from the heads of the Ngang se Ngiri who were wearing them to Meluf to initiate a new member. Nwerong claim the Mbor leaf is their sole prerogative. On this day, after the Nchelav had completed the act and left for the Palace, Lawyer Mbinglo who was sitting in front of “Atlantic Photos Studio” at Squares got into the next Bar, (Sala’s Bar) and bought crates of beer for Yeengiri. That to Nwerong was considered as complicity with Ngiri against Nwerong. His candidature could not therefore pass without Nwerong’s support.

On his part, Shey Ayori who was lobbying for support in Faanjang, even in the absence of Taa woo Faanjang, who was in the Palace, was not a popular candidate. According to the same source, Shey was not popular because he was not a generous man. Many condemned that weakness in him and wrote him off the list of potential candidates.

Lastly, there was Prince Fondzeyuf Patrick, who was so popular among the commonest Nso man for his social interaction and remarkable generosity out of very little he had. Apart from that he was noted for his sympathy towards any afflicted and suffering. Prince Fondzeyuf equally enjoyed a 100% support from Nwerong, and aTaanto for:

-his unwavering support for Nwerong during the Mbor Crisis during which he was stoned in the Ngiri santum causing to lose a tooth for supporting Nwerong.

For mastering and promoting the culture of the Nso people and for his respectful nature towards the traditional instructions and those who incarnate them.

From another perspective, Prince Fondzeyuf was at the time a strong grassroots militant of the SDF and understanding the popular sway at the time, even among a majority of the King Makers, the probability of him going through was very high.

Above all, the voice of the gods through the Nso Mntar had him as their choice as reported from the messages brought back. It should however be noted that in 1983, when Ngah Bi’fon III was enthroned, Prince Fondzeyuf was seized and enstooled as Faay Taawong but he rejected the post with the pronouncement that he was destined for a higher position (Fonship)than that


Many who knew his background very well agreed that the position of Taawong for him was a calculated attempt to disrupt his future greatness. When therefore he was chosen, many did not doubt, though few were those who were expecting him during the machinations process.

It was during all these machinations that Nwerong stepped in and seized him, enthroned him in the Nwerong santum and then announced to the world that the Nso Sun had reason before the other King Makers and the other lobbying camps discovered they had been beaten. 

It was in the aftermath of the Nwerong act that resistance from Ndzeendzev, aTaawong and Ayiywong, and others that a stalemate arose as the New Fon stayed with Nwerong while the Nwerong ritualistic music resounded throughout that night.

Following this unexpected turn of events, the wisdom of the Sultan Ibrahim Mbombo Njoya, played a great role in the mediation. It was thanks to this wisdom that peace was reached and the process of enthronement was taken over as tradition demands. 

It should be noted that at the disappearance of the Fon, the Sultan arrived before Midday and took over the running of the Nso Palace before the new Fon was enthroned.

The rise of Sehm Mbinglo I to the Nso throne could be compared but to the rise of Sehm III, (Mbinkar Mbinglo) to the Nso throne. Both Fons were first enthroned by Nwerong before Ndzeendzev and other King Makers came in later. Such procedures challenged and disrupted the established enthronement procedure.

Bulami Edward Fonyuy

The University of Bamenda-Bambili

Email: bulamiedu@yahoo.com

The ascension story of Mbinkar Mbinglo; the Might monarch of Nso Kingdom

Fon Mbinkar Mbinglo

The ascension story of Mbinkar Mbinglo as you can read in Prof Daniel Noni Lantum in the monograph “Sehm III: Father of Nso Development (1947-1972) rather relates that there was a break from tradition in that he was seized for enthronement by Nwerong without the knowledge of Ndzeendzev. This, according to Lantum’s narrative, was after Prince Mbinglo sent mystical warning signals from his waiting “hide-out” in Mbah. The appearance of the rainbow in the sky was taken as a communication warning and signal to anyone who dared sit on the throne. Consequently, Nwerong fished him out and did an unprecedented recognition and enthronement procedure that  departed from the established tradition. It was in leading the already Nwerong-recognized “Fon'” to Ndzeendzev, that Ndzeendzev who was embarrassed questioned who was in the Nwerong mask, and further declared that if that was Mbinkar Mbinglo, then he was not going to endorse him. That, according to the narrative, was the cause of the discord between Fon Sehm III and Ndzeendzev.

It should be noted, that if Nso historians endorse the above narrative, then the second similar break in the enthronement procedure was recorded with accession to the throne of Sehm Mbinglo I. The difference with his father’s enthronement is that he never sent any warning signal, but was the choice of Nwerong and aTaanto because of his “respect for traditional institutions and for his inflinching support to Nwerong during the 1989 Mbor Crisis” (my quotes).

Unlike his father, when Nwerong seized and enthroned him, he stayed in the Nso Palace because of Ndzeendzev’s resistance against the choice. However, with the tactful and diplomatic negotiations led by Sultan Ibrahim Mbombo Njoya of the Bamoun, Ndzeendzev and his Co gave in to Nwerong. This entailed the re-enthronement of the Fon. And it came to pass. Sehm Mbinglo I is today 27 years on the Nso throne come September 2020.

These two similar scenarios prove that it is difficult for a Prince to auto-claim Fonship and go successfully through without one of the parties in the enthronement chain being an accomplice. And in such an eventuality if Nwerong is not in complicity the difficulty could be enormous.

In another light, the process of grooming a Nso Prince for succession to the Nso throne is more the collective responsibility of society. While Nwerong, as the custodian of the land, keeps a close study of all potential princes, the rest of the members of the enthronement council also keep a close study. These could only caution the princes but would never make them know they are under study. The individual prince under the hidden guide of his Wiinto, shapes his destiny on to the throne through his public comportment. Close friends, who are conscious of the potentiality of the said prince to succeed the Nso throne, caution and help the prince to build confidence in the population and in the King makers.

It should be noted that there is the metaphysical phase in the process of choosing a successor to the Nso throne. This is done through the Nso Mtar, who are sent out to the world to divine amongst the potential princes who is most suited. The Nso Fondom always waits for the return of these gods’ Messengers to return with the gods’ choice before the enthronement is done. However, they are never given more than a day to do. This phase is threatened by political influences and the overbearing interventions of Nwerong.

Concerning the Fon grooming a potential successor, it becomes a problematic equation in that there are two families considered to be in the rulership roll of the Nso Dynasty; the Ngah and the Sehm, who in reality are one. Sehm II (1886-1907) and Ngah Bi’fon I (1910-1947) were sons of Yaa Yeefon Lirfee. The tendency for a ruling Fon to be biased against the other house in his choice of a successor cannot be ignored. Also, the Fon’s criteria, as an individual, to judge any potential prince may be flawed by bias and incompatibility with the established criteria of the King makers and the society. These are some of the reasons why the probability of any respect for the ‘wispered choice” of a ruling Fon is low.

The dream of a Nso Fon abdicating the throne to hand over to a choice he had groomed is far removed from the Nso cosmic view and practices of inheritance. However, with the postmodernist disorder, one cannot totally dismiss an eventual precedence.

Bulami Edward Fonyuy

The University of Bamenda-Bambili

E-mail: bulamiedu@yahoo.com

Cameroon: Nso: Titles in the Paramount Fondom of Nso (part 3) Fai

If you missed part one on Nso Titles, do not worry, you can still read part 1 here; and part 2 here;

II-2. FAI

The highest rank of Fai is the Atarntoh (all Nchelav), with the “Atarntoh ve Samba”, leading this group. These are family heads of some of the most influential lineages in Nso. In Fact some of them actually submitted themselves to Nso as Fons between 1450 and 1800, but it is unknown why they were made Nwerong leaders instead of Duy or Mtaar Vibai.

Unlike the Vibai who are councilors of the court, the primary role of the Atarntoh is that of Palace stewards, priests and guardians of the royal household. Atarntoh also sometimes act as advisers to the Fon.

In addition, the Atarntoh are members of the “Shishwaa” society whose principal duty is to keep Nso land free of famine. “Shishwaa” members are also responsible for protecting Nso institutions from any destruction and also act as the Fon’s peace envoys.

Here in order of seniority are the “Atarntoh ve Samba

1. Fai Maamo (Nchelav)

2. Fai Faanjang (Nchelav)

3. Fai Mbingiy (Nchelav/Mtaar)

4. Fai Kuyntoh Nchelav (Nchelav)

5. Fai Kuynseh (Nchelav)

6. Fai Tsenkay (Nchelav)

7. Fai Nseeni (Nchelav)

All “Atarntoh ve samba” are only lower in rank to the ten (10) ” Vibai ve tiy se taakibu”.

The next category of Fais is the “Won jemer se Fon” (the Fon’s sisters’ sons). Since most of these are Mtaar (aboriginal Nso), they have a separate quarter called TaaMban (next to Nwerong’s compound). Their principal duty is to carry out inquisitions, expiatory sacrifices and cleansing rituals.

Here in order of seniority are the Fai “Won jemer ve samba

1. Fai Nsame (Mtaar)

2. Fai Mbivtinmbang (Mtaar)

3. Fai Kii Mbala Nseeni (Mtaar)

4. Fai Jem Njavnyuy (Mtaar)

5. Fai Menjey Tooy (Mtaar)

6. Fai Jem Kinga (Mtaar)

7. Fai Kii Kiyan (Mtaar)

All “Won jemer se Fon” are higher in rank to ” Vibai ve duy ve kpu”.

The last category of Fais are lineage or sub-lineage heads. There are scores of Fais (too many to be listed) in this category and are drawn from all the segments of Nso society the commoners (Nchelav), the aboriginals (Mtaar) and the extended royal family (Duy). All Fais in this category are lower in rank to all Vibais, the Atarntohs and “Won jemer”

The process of en-stooling is elaborate, grande and very public, whether the Fai assumes the stool by inheritance, extension (“kisheer”), elevation (from Shey) or appointment by the Fon (fhum or buh).

Shey Stephen Shemlon (PHD)

Nso Titles in the Paramount Fondom of Nso (part 2) Shufai

II-1. SHUFAI

Administratively the Shufai is the highest authority that is next in rank to the Fon. The Shufai belongs to the select council of “taakibu” advisors of the Fon.

The highest ranked Shufais are the original ten lords from Kov Vifem (Vibai ve Kov). They sit on stones (instead of stools) in the Fon’s court to signify their permanence as advisors to the Fon. All of the ten lords from Kov Vifem came as Fons between 1450 and 1800 and submitted their people and culture to be integrated into Nso.

Here below in order of rank are the  ten Vibai ve Kov Vifem (Vibai ve tiy se taakibu):

1. Shufai Ndzendzev (Duy)

2. Shufai Tankum (Duy)

3. Shufai Tsenla (Mtaar)

4. Shufai Do Run (Mtaar)

5. Shufai Do Ngwen (Mtaar)

6. Shufai Ndzendzev Tsen (Duy)

7. Shufai Yuuwar (Duy)

8. Shufai Shuv (Duy)

9. Shufai Lun (Duy)

10. Shufai Wainseeri wo Yer (Duy) <—- about to change

It should be noted here that in matters of state duties Yah Yefon (Fon’s mother – the queen mother or her  representative) is ranked third after Shufai Ndzendzev and Shufai Tankum.

Because of the pacts drawn at Kov Vifem before the palace was moved to Kimbo, it was very difficult  for any Fon to promote any Fai or newly arriving Fons to the rank of Kibai. The ten Shufais from Kov Vifem fought very hard to maintain their number at ten from 1825 when the palace moved to Kimbo until the reign of Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947).

Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947) insisted on increasing the council of advisors to include Fais with a broader view of the modern world that Christianity and European colonialism were bringing and to better advise the Fon on matters of Education, Trade, Commerce and Industry. Despite stiff resistance from the ten Vibai Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947) convinced Nwerong of the necessity to increase the number of “taakibu” councilors and in 1929 he elevated Fai Sov to the rank of Kibai.

This elevation angered the most senior Kibai (Shufai Ndzendzev) so much that a rift was created with the Fon. This rift ran for the next three decades and resulted in the Ndzendzev crisis of 1956/1957. Despite this, the1929 elevation of Fai Sov opened the door for the elevation of other Fais to the rank of Kibai.

Here in order of seniority (year of elevation) are the Shufais that were elevated by Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947), Sehm III (1947 – 1972), Ngah Bifon II (1972 –1983) and Ngah Bifon III (1983 – 1993).

1. Shufai Sov (Mtaar)

2. Shufai Nkavikeng (Duy)

3. Shufai Kuy Meliim (Mtaar)

4. Shufai Ngangndzen (Mtaar)

5. Shufai Nsaansa (Duy)

6. Shufai Mbisha (Duy)

7. Shufai Kuyla Yer (Mtaar)

8. Shufai Kii Kitiwum (Mtaar)

9. Shufai Rookov (Mtaar)

10.Shufai Nkim Vekovi (Mtaar)

There is a third category of Vibai that are all of the extended royal family (Duy). These Vibai are considered lower in rank to Fai Taawong and Yah Yeewong. They play the role of state councilors of sacrifice and are also prominently in charge of the Fon’s burial.

Here in order of seniority are the seven Vibay ve Kpu:

1 Shufai Bashwin (Duy)

2. Shufai Njavnyuy (Duy)

3. Shufai Ndzendzev Ntintin (Duy)

4. Shufai Dzem (Duy)

5. Shufai Bambuy (Duy)

6. Shufai Koongir (Duy)

7. Shufai Taaway (Duy)

Only an existing Faiship can be elevated to a Shufaiship. Neither the Fon nor Nwerong can create a new compound or lineage and immediately elevate it to a Shufaiship. The process is complicated and drawn. The Fon must not only obtain the consent of the other Vibai (willingly or by coercion), he must get the consent of both Nwerong and Ngiri who must admit the new Shufai as a “ngang” Ngiri and/or “ngang” Nwerong.

In addition to these impediments the Fon must also contend with the “parents” (extended family and lineage) of candidates for elevation to a Faiship or a Shufaiship or for a newly created Faiship. It is considered an affront on a lineage for the Fon or Nwerong to attempt to elevate a Faiship to a rank that will be considered higher than that of his fatherly lineage. This is largely due to the tacit agreement in Nso society that someone cannot inherit a Faiship or Shufaiship when his father is still alive. This would be interpreted as an attempt to kill the father. For this reason a new Faiship cannot be created or elevated  without authorization from the “father” Faiship to create the new “Kisher” (extention) of the family lineage.

This haggling with lineage heads on elevations and awards even occurs between the Fon and his own brothers of the extended royal  family (Duy). When the Fon attempted to replace Shufai Tsenla Yer with Shufai Bambuy in the rank of “Vibai ve Kpu”, he faced a revolt from almost half of the royal family despite the fact that Fai Bambuy was the descendant of a Fai Taawong. The Fon finally won the day with support from the senior Vibai and Shufai Tsenla Yer lost his position in the “Vibai ve Kpu” ranks, but retained his Shufaiship and in addition gained the title of Ngang Nwerong, a title which was not automatically granted to the “Vibai ve Kpu”.

As shown above Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947) defied all odds to elevate the Sov lineage to a Shufai. Other Fons following him encountered similar problems. When Fon Sehm III (1947-1972) attempted to create a new Faiship with Professor Nsokika Bernard Fonlon as head, Fonlon’s extended lineage of Jem objected. It took until Ngah Bifon II (1972 – 1983) to reward Fonlon with a Faiship (Fai Ntoondzev), after he and Nwerong convinced Jem that Fonlon was no longer their son but a symbol of Nso given his relations with the external world that permitted him to interact with big world leaders like the Canadian Prime-Minister and bring portable water to Kimbo. The pressure was too much for the Jem lineage to bear. They relented and Fonlon became Fai Ntoondzev.

Professor Bernard N Fonlon

A few years after the creation of the Ntoondzev Faiship, Ngah Bifon II (1972 -1983) attempted to elevate it to a Shufaiship but failed. This time the strong objections came from Nwerong who felt elevating a Nchelav Faiship to a Kibai would diminish the power of the Atarntohs in “taakibu”. It took until Ngah Bifon III (1983-1993) for Nwerong to be convinced that the same reasons that necessitated the elevation of Sov in 1929 could be equally compelling in the elevation of a Nchelav Fai to a Shufai. Nwerong accepted the argument and Ntoondzev was elevated to a Shufaiship a few years before Fonlon died in 1986.

Here  is the list of Shufais in the recent category discussed above:

1. Shufai Tsenla Yer (Duy)

2. Shufai Rookov Meluf (Mtaar)

3. Shufai Kiron (Mtaar)

4. Shufai Tsen Nkar (Duy)

5. Shufai Keeri (Mtaar)

6. Shufai Ntoondzev – Fonlon (Nchelav)

7. Shufai Kuyntoh Wonntoh (Duy)

8. Shufai Taankum Kuy (Duy)

Ntoondzev’s  elevation to Shufai opened the way for other Nchelav Faiships to be elevated to Shufaiships. The case of Shufai Langhee is notable  among Nchelav Shufaiships not only because Nwerong outwitted the Fon but because of the astonishing collaboration between Nwerong and Ngiri to achieve this.

Langhee was a Nwerong page who went through the traditional palace stewardship of nine (9) years. He graduated automatically as a Shey and started the Langhee lineage. When the original Shey Langhee died, the Langhee Sheyship was elevated to a Faiship and his son Professor Chem Langhee who succeeded him as the first Fai Langhee quickly rose in Nwerong ranks. He endeared himself to the extended royal family by marrying a princess. Fon Ngah Bifon III (1983 – 1993) whose daughter Fai Langhee married attempted unsuccessfully to elevate Fai Langhee to a Shufai after his success with Ntoondzev. The other Vibai strongly objected because in their eyes “Chem Langhee was no Fonlon”. However, an unusual collaboration of Ngiri and Nwerong convinced Fon Sehm Mbinglo I (1993 – Present) to elevate Langhee to a Shufai.

This unusual but welcomed collaboration of Nwerong and Ngiri was recently aired again when in 2003 Fon Sehm Mbinglo I (1993 – Present) saw the need for a Fai in the American diasporas and created Faa America Faiship. In 2004 when Fai Faa visited the palace with the Fon who was returning from medical treatment in the United States of America, both Nwerong and Ngiri wanted to have the charismatic Fai Faa America as a “ngang”. So, in a strange chain of events, they tricked both the Fon and Fai Faa to commit Fai Faa as both a Ngiri and a Nwerong member. The only way to resolve the issue was for Fai Faa America to be a “ngang” Ngiri and a “ngang” Nwerong. To do this, the Fon had to elevate the Faiship of Faa America to a Shufaiship. Negotiations for this elevation took two (2) years because of some resistance from the Vibai despite the fact that the Fon really had no choice when confronted with the Nwerong and Ngiri political chicanery. Shufai Faa America completed his en-stoolment and “kibunfon” as the newest Kibai in December 2006.

As we can see from above, the elevation of a Nchelav (commoner) to a Shufaiship is rare, but some have been elevated in recent times to increase the realm of the Fon’s councilors.

Here is a list of some recent Nchelav elevations to Shufai:

1. Shufai Kuy Ka (Nchelav)

2. Shufai Langhee (Nchelav)

3. Shufai Taashiv (Nchelav)

4. Shufai Kitav (Nchelav)

5. Shufai Faa America (Nchelav)

Elevation to the rank of Shufai is a very public event that involves the whole palace, Nwerong, Ngiri , Duy, Nchelav and the public. The preparations take time, the celebration is grand and the event is registered in public memory. The “kibunfon” of the new Shufai is memorable and is generally followed by a “tee shishur she Ngiri” or “tee shishur she Nwerong”,  a “fum mfuuh” and a grand “kitar yiy” for the family.

We shall in the next part examine the title of Fai which is next in rank to the Shufai, with some  Fais (especially Atarntohs) having functional and administrative ranks that are higher than some Shufais.

Shey Stephen Shemlon (PHD)

Titles and Cult Membership in Nso (Final :Part 10)

If you missed part 1 to 3 you can get them part 1 here , part 2 here, part 3 here , part 4 here , part 5 here , part 6 here , part 7 here , part 8 here and part 9 here: This part ends with the references/bibliography of the whole paper.

VI-4. MANDATORY CULT MEMBERSHIP TRAINING
In the days of old it took many years for a newly inducted member to learn the rules and regulations of the cult. The training on the handling of the cult medicines and fetishes took decades. It took serious training to rise from one rank to the next within the cult house. It took decades before one could become a “samba wir”. This training and tutelage should be re-instated in all cults. If a cult member is unwilling to go through the training they should not be allowed to rise in rank or come out as an escort for the cult masquerade (their financial wherewithal not withstanding). How can such a member who has not learned to manipulate the cult’s occultist spirits and medicines, stroke the totem in the cult masquerade in any public arena?
If the new members were to go through the mandatory training they may also come to realize that if they advance to certain ranks in some cults their diet may be restricted at certain times during some rituals. For examples some cults may restrict their members to weeks of only eating “vikuou, mbaar, shinyaa and ntee – cocoyams, cocoyam leaf soup, eggplant soup and groundnut soup”, no meat products or any starchy foods. Any member who is ready to endure this for the rest of their lives may then want to advance to the ranks of “samba wir”.
When some of these potential senior cult members learn through their training that if they rise to given ranks or assume certain totem stroking functions in either the Yeŋwéròŋ or Yeŋgírì cults for example, they may be forbidden from being buried in a coffin (even a bamboo one) because their spirits could no longer be allowed to be imprisoned (in a coffin), they will consult their families and their other gods before seeking senior ranks in either Yeŋwéròŋ or Yeŋgírì cults.
What is happening today is tantamount to someone coming to a University, registering for classes, paying all their tuition and fees, and refusing to attend classes, but insisting that they should be given the Masters Degree or PhD anyway because they just do not have the time to study and/or attend classes and that by-the-way they have already paid all their tuition. Any University worthy of their name will throw such a person out.
The University model should be adopted at the level of the cults. Anyone who is unwilling to go throw the mandatory training should be thrown out of the cult. This will make sure that new comers will take the time to learn to become worthy members as was the case in the old days. With such a requirement, if the Fòn proposes a title to a visitor who is unwilling or unable to spend the time to learn the roots of Nso’ culture, that visitor can refuse the title and the Fòn will be sympathetic to their decision.
VI-5. MANDATORY CULT MEMBERSHIP OBLIGATIONS FOR LIFE
In the old days cult membership and titles came with lifetime obligations. In 1970 a Sheèy wo Ngang Ŋwéròŋ or Sheèy wo Ngang Ŋgírì contributed an average of 200 FCFA (Two Hundred Francs CFA) on a monthly basis for the upkeep of the cults and other Palace institutions when all their donations throughout the year were averaged. If this amount is compounded as above, it comes to about 2,150 FCFA (Two Thousands One Hundred and Fifty Francs CFA) today. If the system required a Sheèy to contribute 2,000FCFA, every Faáy to contribute 3,000FCFA and every Shúufaáy to contribute 5,000FCFA on a monthly basis, enough would be generated for the upkeep of all cults, all Palace institutions and all lineage, clan and sub-clan compounds.
Again all heriditary Title Holders who need the help would be assisted by their families to meet this obligation, especially given that their compound would also be helped by this contribution.
Many would think deeply when a Titled cult membership is proposed to them and examine whether they can meet this monthly lifetime obligation before accepting. Those who can not keep this obligation will not accept the Titled cult membership.
We also posit that if current Title Holders were given the choice of keeping their titles and meeting up to the monthly obligations or giving up the titles, some will give up their Titles and allow themselves to be “washed” voluntarily. Those who choose to keep the titles and refuse to keep up with the monthly obligtions should be involuntarily “washed”.
VI-6. CREATION OF AN EX-OFFICIO PALACE ADVISORY BOARD
We have proposed the re-introduction of various streams of income that used to get to the Palace in cash and in kind from various Men of Title. To manage these funds we propose the creation of an Ex-Officio Palace Advisory Board whose only role shall be financial oversight and related financial management. This Board will be responsible for setting up a Palace Office with a salaried Manager, Assistants and Secretaries to manage the streams of income enumerated herein and insure that they are disbursed and used efficiently.
The second role of the Advisory Board shall be to work with the Fòn, Vibay, Atárnto’, Ŋwéròŋ and Ŋgírì, to set up permanent income generating streams to make sure that for the next 500 years, the Nso’ Palace institutions are as autonomous as those of successful Kingdoms like those of the United Kingdom and other European Kingdoms.
Such an Advisory Board should be elected from among current and committed Titled cult members (ladies included) and should be given a mandate to complete their task within a specified period of time.

VII. CONCLUSION
It is our hope that this detailed analysis has provided a good insight into the inner working of the Nso’ Paramount Kingdom Palace and its institutions, the most important of which are male-dominated cults.
Hopefully our suggestions for the future will be followed so Nso’ culture can be modernized responsibly in a way that will ensure its survival for the next 500 years.
As time marches on, Nso’ culture will evolve. We pray that the Nso’ people should remain conservative and glued to their traditional norms as they advance and modernize their culture to suit the evolving times as their forefathers did for 600 years under circumstances that were more trying and more turbulent than the present.

VIII. REFERENCES

VIII-1. “An introduction to Nso’ Culture”, Vol. I, by Faáy Woo Lii Wong (Joseph Lafon), 2001 VIII-2.”Introduction to Nso’ History”, by William Banboye, 2001
VIII-3. “The Ndzәәndzәv Dispute: From its beginning to its ending”, by Faáy Woo Lii Wong (Joseph Lafon), 1999
VIII-4. “Nso’ Historical Timeline: An Illustrated and Annotated History of the Paramount Tikar Kingdom (Fòndom) of Bui in Northwestern Cameroons”, by Sheèy Shiyghan Stephen Shemlon, PhD, (to be published).
VIII-5. “The Core Culture of Nso’”, by Paul N. Mzeka, 1980.
VIII-6. “Sov! Sov! Our Glorious Heritage”, by Rev. Fondzefee Charles Tangwa, 2008.
VIII-7. “Dr. Bernard Nsokika Fonlon: An Intellectual In Politics”, by Prof. Daniel Noni Lantum, 1992.
VIII-8. “Fon Nso’ Sehm Ataar (1947 – 1972): Father of Nso’ Development”, by Prof. Daniel Noni Lantum, 2000.
VIII-9. “Royal Succession In The African Kingdom Of Nso’: A Study In Oral Historiography”, by Bongfen Chem-Langhëë and Verkijika G. Fanso, 2008.
VIII-10. “A History Of The Church In Kumbo Diocese (1912-1988)”, by Joseph Lafon (Faáy Lii Wong), 1988. VIII-11. ” Ŋgonnso’ Cultural Festival 2010 Magazine”, by NSODA, 2010.