Category Archives: Kumbo

Nso Titles in the Paramount Fondom of Nso (part 2) Shufai

II-1. SHUFAI

Administratively the Shufai is the highest authority that is next in rank to the Fon. The Shufai belongs to the select council of “taakibu” advisors of the Fon.

The highest ranked Shufais are the original ten lords from Kov Vifem (Vibai ve Kov). They sit on stones (instead of stools) in the Fon’s court to signify their permanence as advisors to the Fon. All of the ten lords from Kov Vifem came as Fons between 1450 and 1800 and submitted their people and culture to be integrated into Nso.

Here below in order of rank are the  ten Vibai ve Kov Vifem (Vibai ve tiy se taakibu):

1. Shufai Ndzendzev (Duy)

2. Shufai Tankum (Duy)

3. Shufai Tsenla (Mtaar)

4. Shufai Do Run (Mtaar)

5. Shufai Do Ngwen (Mtaar)

6. Shufai Ndzendzev Tsen (Duy)

7. Shufai Yuuwar (Duy)

8. Shufai Shuv (Duy)

9. Shufai Lun (Duy)

10. Shufai Wainseeri wo Yer (Duy) <—- about to change

It should be noted here that in matters of state duties Yah Yefon (Fon’s mother – the queen mother or her  representative) is ranked third after Shufai Ndzendzev and Shufai Tankum.

Because of the pacts drawn at Kov Vifem before the palace was moved to Kimbo, it was very difficult  for any Fon to promote any Fai or newly arriving Fons to the rank of Kibai. The ten Shufais from Kov Vifem fought very hard to maintain their number at ten from 1825 when the palace moved to Kimbo until the reign of Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947).

Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947) insisted on increasing the council of advisors to include Fais with a broader view of the modern world that Christianity and European colonialism were bringing and to better advise the Fon on matters of Education, Trade, Commerce and Industry. Despite stiff resistance from the ten Vibai Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947) convinced Nwerong of the necessity to increase the number of “taakibu” councilors and in 1929 he elevated Fai Sov to the rank of Kibai.

This elevation angered the most senior Kibai (Shufai Ndzendzev) so much that a rift was created with the Fon. This rift ran for the next three decades and resulted in the Ndzendzev crisis of 1956/1957. Despite this, the1929 elevation of Fai Sov opened the door for the elevation of other Fais to the rank of Kibai.

Here in order of seniority (year of elevation) are the Shufais that were elevated by Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947), Sehm III (1947 – 1972), Ngah Bifon II (1972 –1983) and Ngah Bifon III (1983 – 1993).

1. Shufai Sov (Mtaar)

2. Shufai Nkavikeng (Duy)

3. Shufai Kuy Meliim (Mtaar)

4. Shufai Ngangndzen (Mtaar)

5. Shufai Nsaansa (Duy)

6. Shufai Mbisha (Duy)

7. Shufai Kuyla Yer (Mtaar)

8. Shufai Kii Kitiwum (Mtaar)

9. Shufai Rookov (Mtaar)

10.Shufai Nkim Vekovi (Mtaar)

There is a third category of Vibai that are all of the extended royal family (Duy). These Vibai are considered lower in rank to Fai Taawong and Yah Yeewong. They play the role of state councilors of sacrifice and are also prominently in charge of the Fon’s burial.

Here in order of seniority are the seven Vibay ve Kpu:

1 Shufai Bashwin (Duy)

2. Shufai Njavnyuy (Duy)

3. Shufai Ndzendzev Ntintin (Duy)

4. Shufai Dzem (Duy)

5. Shufai Bambuy (Duy)

6. Shufai Koongir (Duy)

7. Shufai Taaway (Duy)

Only an existing Faiship can be elevated to a Shufaiship. Neither the Fon nor Nwerong can create a new compound or lineage and immediately elevate it to a Shufaiship. The process is complicated and drawn. The Fon must not only obtain the consent of the other Vibai (willingly or by coercion), he must get the consent of both Nwerong and Ngiri who must admit the new Shufai as a “ngang” Ngiri and/or “ngang” Nwerong.

In addition to these impediments the Fon must also contend with the “parents” (extended family and lineage) of candidates for elevation to a Faiship or a Shufaiship or for a newly created Faiship. It is considered an affront on a lineage for the Fon or Nwerong to attempt to elevate a Faiship to a rank that will be considered higher than that of his fatherly lineage. This is largely due to the tacit agreement in Nso society that someone cannot inherit a Faiship or Shufaiship when his father is still alive. This would be interpreted as an attempt to kill the father. For this reason a new Faiship cannot be created or elevated  without authorization from the “father” Faiship to create the new “Kisher” (extention) of the family lineage.

This haggling with lineage heads on elevations and awards even occurs between the Fon and his own brothers of the extended royal  family (Duy). When the Fon attempted to replace Shufai Tsenla Yer with Shufai Bambuy in the rank of “Vibai ve Kpu”, he faced a revolt from almost half of the royal family despite the fact that Fai Bambuy was the descendant of a Fai Taawong. The Fon finally won the day with support from the senior Vibai and Shufai Tsenla Yer lost his position in the “Vibai ve Kpu” ranks, but retained his Shufaiship and in addition gained the title of Ngang Nwerong, a title which was not automatically granted to the “Vibai ve Kpu”.

As shown above Ngah Bifon I (1910-1947) defied all odds to elevate the Sov lineage to a Shufai. Other Fons following him encountered similar problems. When Fon Sehm III (1947-1972) attempted to create a new Faiship with Professor Nsokika Bernard Fonlon as head, Fonlon’s extended lineage of Jem objected. It took until Ngah Bifon II (1972 – 1983) to reward Fonlon with a Faiship (Fai Ntoondzev), after he and Nwerong convinced Jem that Fonlon was no longer their son but a symbol of Nso given his relations with the external world that permitted him to interact with big world leaders like the Canadian Prime-Minister and bring portable water to Kimbo. The pressure was too much for the Jem lineage to bear. They relented and Fonlon became Fai Ntoondzev.

Professor Bernard N Fonlon

A few years after the creation of the Ntoondzev Faiship, Ngah Bifon II (1972 -1983) attempted to elevate it to a Shufaiship but failed. This time the strong objections came from Nwerong who felt elevating a Nchelav Faiship to a Kibai would diminish the power of the Atarntohs in “taakibu”. It took until Ngah Bifon III (1983-1993) for Nwerong to be convinced that the same reasons that necessitated the elevation of Sov in 1929 could be equally compelling in the elevation of a Nchelav Fai to a Shufai. Nwerong accepted the argument and Ntoondzev was elevated to a Shufaiship a few years before Fonlon died in 1986.

Here  is the list of Shufais in the recent category discussed above:

1. Shufai Tsenla Yer (Duy)

2. Shufai Rookov Meluf (Mtaar)

3. Shufai Kiron (Mtaar)

4. Shufai Tsen Nkar (Duy)

5. Shufai Keeri (Mtaar)

6. Shufai Ntoondzev – Fonlon (Nchelav)

7. Shufai Kuyntoh Wonntoh (Duy)

8. Shufai Taankum Kuy (Duy)

Ntoondzev’s  elevation to Shufai opened the way for other Nchelav Faiships to be elevated to Shufaiships. The case of Shufai Langhee is notable  among Nchelav Shufaiships not only because Nwerong outwitted the Fon but because of the astonishing collaboration between Nwerong and Ngiri to achieve this.

Langhee was a Nwerong page who went through the traditional palace stewardship of nine (9) years. He graduated automatically as a Shey and started the Langhee lineage. When the original Shey Langhee died, the Langhee Sheyship was elevated to a Faiship and his son Professor Chem Langhee who succeeded him as the first Fai Langhee quickly rose in Nwerong ranks. He endeared himself to the extended royal family by marrying a princess. Fon Ngah Bifon III (1983 – 1993) whose daughter Fai Langhee married attempted unsuccessfully to elevate Fai Langhee to a Shufai after his success with Ntoondzev. The other Vibai strongly objected because in their eyes “Chem Langhee was no Fonlon”. However, an unusual collaboration of Ngiri and Nwerong convinced Fon Sehm Mbinglo I (1993 – Present) to elevate Langhee to a Shufai.

This unusual but welcomed collaboration of Nwerong and Ngiri was recently aired again when in 2003 Fon Sehm Mbinglo I (1993 – Present) saw the need for a Fai in the American diasporas and created Faa America Faiship. In 2004 when Fai Faa visited the palace with the Fon who was returning from medical treatment in the United States of America, both Nwerong and Ngiri wanted to have the charismatic Fai Faa America as a “ngang”. So, in a strange chain of events, they tricked both the Fon and Fai Faa to commit Fai Faa as both a Ngiri and a Nwerong member. The only way to resolve the issue was for Fai Faa America to be a “ngang” Ngiri and a “ngang” Nwerong. To do this, the Fon had to elevate the Faiship of Faa America to a Shufaiship. Negotiations for this elevation took two (2) years because of some resistance from the Vibai despite the fact that the Fon really had no choice when confronted with the Nwerong and Ngiri political chicanery. Shufai Faa America completed his en-stoolment and “kibunfon” as the newest Kibai in December 2006.

As we can see from above, the elevation of a Nchelav (commoner) to a Shufaiship is rare, but some have been elevated in recent times to increase the realm of the Fon’s councilors.

Here is a list of some recent Nchelav elevations to Shufai:

1. Shufai Kuy Ka (Nchelav)

2. Shufai Langhee (Nchelav)

3. Shufai Taashiv (Nchelav)

4. Shufai Kitav (Nchelav)

5. Shufai Faa America (Nchelav)

Elevation to the rank of Shufai is a very public event that involves the whole palace, Nwerong, Ngiri , Duy, Nchelav and the public. The preparations take time, the celebration is grand and the event is registered in public memory. The “kibunfon” of the new Shufai is memorable and is generally followed by a “tee shishur she Ngiri” or “tee shishur she Nwerong”,  a “fum mfuuh” and a grand “kitar yiy” for the family.

We shall in the next part examine the title of Fai which is next in rank to the Shufai, with some  Fais (especially Atarntohs) having functional and administrative ranks that are higher than some Shufais.

Shey Stephen Shemlon (PHD)

What is the Fate of the SDF chairman John Fru Ndi

There is not doubt that SDF maintains as the main leading opposition party in Cameroon with its party leader as the only opposition leader who has stood the test of time as far back as the early 90s. Today, the popularity of this charismatic leaders has experienced a drastic decline. Is he on his way down to ruins?  what could be the causes for the popularity loss of the party chairman.

When one looks at the iamge above, one will agree with this write that, no even, no political leader/event has ever pulled a crowd with one goal as the SDF did in the 90s with its party chair. When they won the elections in 1992 and refused to get to the parliament, many asserted this was the first major blunder of the chairman as they gradually gave the majority and influence to the ruling CPDM.

The chairman continued in his struggle and quest for leadership both as party chair and declaring his candidature for the position of the head of state up till date. His challengers especially in the pary have been either replaced or excommunicated from the vice presidents and group presidents/secretaries. This aspect exhibited by the chair earned him the title of a dictator not different from President Paul Biya.

During the 50th Anniversary of Independence and the celebration with the military in Bamenda when Fru Ndi came face to face with the President, things took a U-turn. Many concluded that the chairman was bought as he constantly visited the Unity palace, discussed with the president and skillfully stood against many demonstrations that planned in the name of peace. The Unity palace surely rewarded him handsomely.

The on going Anglophone crisis has been a big challenge for the SDF chairman, he has been unable to directly state where he belongs. Is he an Anglophone fighting for the Anglophones’ plight or a Cameroonian fighting for social Justice. Is he an opposition leader who wants to take over the command baton from Paul Biya or someone playing a double edge sword role to stand stand victorious on whoever wins. While the Anglophones are asking for a two state federation, he is asking for a four state. Where really does he belong?

The fact that SDF in the midst of the Anglophone crisis went ahead to admit  Sen Jean Tsomelou as the Secretary General of the party brought a lot of discontent amongst many Anglophones who easily tagged the chairman as a traitor. Although he defended that SDF stands for Federalism and not secession. Ewi Elvis on the 14th of January in the “We Love You Bamenda” forum tried as much as possible to explain the position of the chairman and SDF stating that people may often not understand the choices of the party, and that except that we want to conclude that SDF is an All Anglophone party, one should look at the position of Jean Tsomelou in the first place. He adds that Tsomelou as a senator defends the truth more than any in the party and that his role would be a boast to the Marginalization fight. Tsomelou stands as one who always advocate for a walk out when CPDM stands on useless reforms. He defended the demonstrations at the parliament and stood behind the SDF match in Buea. This explanation bought the sympathy of many like princess Nene who added that she was not an SDF member but reiterated that an opposition party could not be an Anglophone party. “The Chairman happens to be an anglophone and it is more advantageous for us to use him for the struggle, he should explain things better to the people, ” Princess Nene added.

It is true the chairman has been unable to state clearly where he belongs. When the struggle started, one could conclude that as an anglophone, he stood for the anglophones. He went to Governor many times and to the cells to get many of those arrested freed. He joined the match in Buea but the new year has brought the chairman under fire.

After the planned NEC meeting to excommunicate Hon. Wirba Joseph for his bravery on the National Assembly, Fru Ndi later lashed on his actions which expressed some acts of “jealousy” for a patriotic MP.  The letter Wirba later exposed which he wrote to his chairman addressing him as a father made many lose confidence in SDF chairman. His refusal to protect his son and went to the media to question him was a big blunder on the part of the chairman.

Today and sad enough, the one who stands to defend the SDF MP Hon. Wirba is paradoxically an MP from the south a CPDM militant Martin Oyono, one who has nothing to do with the Anglophone crisis but stands as an upright MP who wants to see true change in Cameroon. Right now as we write, he is being interviewed on CRTV as questioned why? He states clearly that someone has to do it and that those of them who represent the minds of the people and refuse to vote for the CPDM bad reforms are referred to as Radicals. He has taken the role that should have been played by the SDF chairman and his MPs to state clearly that he “Will Resist Attempts to Lift Immunity of Wirba Joseph”  said Hon. Martin Oyono

The clarion and challenge call by Oyono Martin has pierced a painful hole in the hearts of the SDF MP to obliged them take the opposite side against their chairman Fru Ndi. This solidarity if practiced all through might be the one that can put an end to the close to 30 years rule of Ni John Fru Ndi. The SDF MPs did not only in their 3rd position statement this time addressed to the Speaker of national Assembly, asked the speaker to provide and protect the immunity of Hon. Wirba to permit him return to the country and perform his duties as an MP.

According to a Press Conference held yesterday in Yaoundé Tuesday April 11, 2017, “Hon Jospeh Mbah Ndam, Vice President of SDF Parliamentary group urged House Speaker Cavaye Yege to ensure that Parliamentary Immunity of Hon.Wirba is not tampered with. He also read out that the House Speaker should protect the escapee and make sure that he returns home without being arrested.” CIN

The question is, If Hon. Wirba spoke the minds of the people and is being lashed by the SDF chairman, then on whose mind is the SDF representing now?

“Hon. Mbah Ndam flanked by other MPs including SDF National Vice President, Hon. Joshua Osih, reiterated their support for Wirba saying that he spoke their mind on the fateful day last November when he spoke on Anglophone marginalization.” CIN

With the SDF MPs asking for the return of Hon. Wirba to his position, does it mean that the call by the Anglophones for the SDF MPs to resign has fallen on deaf ears? Are they willing to fight for the people they represent? Is the interest of being an MP more important to that of liberating the people? If Hon. Wirba were to return home today, after asking the MPs to resign and leave the Glass house for the people, who will he return home as? MP? Freedom fighter? West Cameroon president?

With the SDF chairman asking of what use should the SDF hold elections when the anglophones are on strike, is giving the impression that he is either using the struggle to stay in power or is not willing to handover as the SDF chairperson. If the Anglophone crisis is so important to him, then why is he not able to heed to the call by the Anglophones by boycotting the events organized by the Regime in power. The chairman was spotted during the funeral in the West region of Chantal Biya’s mother, an event that was boycotted by the Presidential couple. How can one mourns more than the bereaved?

During the tour with the CAF cup, the same chairman despite all calls for boycott by the Anglophone leaders, Fru Ndi was again spotted at the podium, a repeat of his trip to the unity palace when the Lions were being received by the head of states. These actions and more have pushed many to conclude that Fru Ndi works as a CPDM agent in the anglophone zones. Is it time for him to go?

Only time will tell.

 

I won’t Go to Court on Tuesday 02.05.2017,Barrister Akuwiyadze fires Back

A lot of noise has been made throughout mainstream media well and social media on the Press Release by The Bar President Jackson Kamga asking common law lawyers to return court on Tuesday the 2nd of May as indications of calling off the Strike. Barrister Joseph Akuwiyadze a Barrister at Law in Kumbo has reacted to Bar president fearlessly as another warrior of Nso. Worth reading and sharing

Pictures taken infront of kumbo high court with Shey Tatah last year

I WON’T GO TO COURT ON TUESDAY 02.05.2017!!!
(By ShuSheey Barrister AKUWIYADZE)
===============
I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

Lawyers in West Cameroon have lost income for six months and their families are suffering. Were they sacrificing for the usual promises?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

Consortium Leaders are in jail, some on self exile, while their families are suffering in Cameroon. Did they ask for promises?
No, Mr. President of Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

Over 100 West Cameroonians, arbitrarily arrested and incarcerated in East Cameroon are suffering in jails for months. Is that why they are paying this price?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

Some of our children have been killed and their families are still in pain. Did they die for promises?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

Our children have sacrificed a whole academic year; parents have lost school fees paid; teachers in private schools are without salary for 5 months now. Is that what they sacrificed (and are still sacrificing) for?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

Business people in West Cameroon have lost income from sales by adhering to Ghost Towns. Some have seen their fortune go up in flames! What have they got in return?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

My colleagues are in jail while others have been forced to go on exile for daring to stand for the TRUTH! Are Lawyers not the watchdogs (whistle-blowers) of society?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.
How can I go to court in a country where a Superscale Magistrate in active Service at the Supreme Court (Ayah Paul Abine) is arrested and incarcerated with impunity ~ without due process?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

How can I go to court when an Honorable Member of Parliament (Joseph Wirba) who did nothing more than his duty as a true Representative of the people (and not a hand-clapper) has been forced out of his country for telling the TRUTH?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

West Cameroonians have suffered more than enough in this Triangle since 1961 as their heritage has been completely wiped out!
Where is Cameroon Bank?
Where is NPMB?
Where is WADA?
Where is PWD?
Where is Yoke Power Station?
Where is Santa Coffee Estate?
Where are our much cherished Institutions? Health? Education? Justice? Law and Order? Etc, etc?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, you are not an Anglophone and I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017.

If I should go to court on the 02.05.2017 or thereafter:

1. ALL our brothers and sisters arrested as a result of the strike action that we (Common Law Lawyers) started on the 11.10.2016 must be UNCONDITIONALLY RELEASED (with guarantees that there won’t be any further arbitrary arrests).

2. Internet Connection cut off from West Cameroon on 18.01.2017 must be re-instated.

3. The towns and villages of West Cameroon flooded with soldiers, must be de-militarized.

When the above pre-conditions would have been met, dialogue will resume so that the problem of marginalization of Anglophones in Cameroon is dealt with once and for all. The time is Now!

Is this a poem?
No, Mr. President of the Cameroon Bar Council, I won’t go to court on the 02.05.2017 or any date thereafter as I’m ready to boycott the courts for two years (renewable) until JUSTICE is done and seen to have been done to us.

ShuSheey AKUWIYADZE,
(Barrister-At-Law)
Kumbo.
West Cameroon.

Titles and Cult Membership in Nso (Final :Part 10)

If you missed part 1 to 3 you can get them part 1 here , part 2 here, part 3 here , part 4 here , part 5 here , part 6 here , part 7 here , part 8 here and part 9 here: This part ends with the references/bibliography of the whole paper.

VI-4. MANDATORY CULT MEMBERSHIP TRAINING
In the days of old it took many years for a newly inducted member to learn the rules and regulations of the cult. The training on the handling of the cult medicines and fetishes took decades. It took serious training to rise from one rank to the next within the cult house. It took decades before one could become a “samba wir”. This training and tutelage should be re-instated in all cults. If a cult member is unwilling to go through the training they should not be allowed to rise in rank or come out as an escort for the cult masquerade (their financial wherewithal not withstanding). How can such a member who has not learned to manipulate the cult’s occultist spirits and medicines, stroke the totem in the cult masquerade in any public arena?
If the new members were to go through the mandatory training they may also come to realize that if they advance to certain ranks in some cults their diet may be restricted at certain times during some rituals. For examples some cults may restrict their members to weeks of only eating “vikuou, mbaar, shinyaa and ntee – cocoyams, cocoyam leaf soup, eggplant soup and groundnut soup”, no meat products or any starchy foods. Any member who is ready to endure this for the rest of their lives may then want to advance to the ranks of “samba wir”.
When some of these potential senior cult members learn through their training that if they rise to given ranks or assume certain totem stroking functions in either the Yeŋwéròŋ or Yeŋgírì cults for example, they may be forbidden from being buried in a coffin (even a bamboo one) because their spirits could no longer be allowed to be imprisoned (in a coffin), they will consult their families and their other gods before seeking senior ranks in either Yeŋwéròŋ or Yeŋgírì cults.
What is happening today is tantamount to someone coming to a University, registering for classes, paying all their tuition and fees, and refusing to attend classes, but insisting that they should be given the Masters Degree or PhD anyway because they just do not have the time to study and/or attend classes and that by-the-way they have already paid all their tuition. Any University worthy of their name will throw such a person out.
The University model should be adopted at the level of the cults. Anyone who is unwilling to go throw the mandatory training should be thrown out of the cult. This will make sure that new comers will take the time to learn to become worthy members as was the case in the old days. With such a requirement, if the Fòn proposes a title to a visitor who is unwilling or unable to spend the time to learn the roots of Nso’ culture, that visitor can refuse the title and the Fòn will be sympathetic to their decision.
VI-5. MANDATORY CULT MEMBERSHIP OBLIGATIONS FOR LIFE
In the old days cult membership and titles came with lifetime obligations. In 1970 a Sheèy wo Ngang Ŋwéròŋ or Sheèy wo Ngang Ŋgírì contributed an average of 200 FCFA (Two Hundred Francs CFA) on a monthly basis for the upkeep of the cults and other Palace institutions when all their donations throughout the year were averaged. If this amount is compounded as above, it comes to about 2,150 FCFA (Two Thousands One Hundred and Fifty Francs CFA) today. If the system required a Sheèy to contribute 2,000FCFA, every Faáy to contribute 3,000FCFA and every Shúufaáy to contribute 5,000FCFA on a monthly basis, enough would be generated for the upkeep of all cults, all Palace institutions and all lineage, clan and sub-clan compounds.
Again all heriditary Title Holders who need the help would be assisted by their families to meet this obligation, especially given that their compound would also be helped by this contribution.
Many would think deeply when a Titled cult membership is proposed to them and examine whether they can meet this monthly lifetime obligation before accepting. Those who can not keep this obligation will not accept the Titled cult membership.
We also posit that if current Title Holders were given the choice of keeping their titles and meeting up to the monthly obligations or giving up the titles, some will give up their Titles and allow themselves to be “washed” voluntarily. Those who choose to keep the titles and refuse to keep up with the monthly obligtions should be involuntarily “washed”.
VI-6. CREATION OF AN EX-OFFICIO PALACE ADVISORY BOARD
We have proposed the re-introduction of various streams of income that used to get to the Palace in cash and in kind from various Men of Title. To manage these funds we propose the creation of an Ex-Officio Palace Advisory Board whose only role shall be financial oversight and related financial management. This Board will be responsible for setting up a Palace Office with a salaried Manager, Assistants and Secretaries to manage the streams of income enumerated herein and insure that they are disbursed and used efficiently.
The second role of the Advisory Board shall be to work with the Fòn, Vibay, Atárnto’, Ŋwéròŋ and Ŋgírì, to set up permanent income generating streams to make sure that for the next 500 years, the Nso’ Palace institutions are as autonomous as those of successful Kingdoms like those of the United Kingdom and other European Kingdoms.
Such an Advisory Board should be elected from among current and committed Titled cult members (ladies included) and should be given a mandate to complete their task within a specified period of time.

VII. CONCLUSION
It is our hope that this detailed analysis has provided a good insight into the inner working of the Nso’ Paramount Kingdom Palace and its institutions, the most important of which are male-dominated cults.
Hopefully our suggestions for the future will be followed so Nso’ culture can be modernized responsibly in a way that will ensure its survival for the next 500 years.
As time marches on, Nso’ culture will evolve. We pray that the Nso’ people should remain conservative and glued to their traditional norms as they advance and modernize their culture to suit the evolving times as their forefathers did for 600 years under circumstances that were more trying and more turbulent than the present.

VIII. REFERENCES

VIII-1. “An introduction to Nso’ Culture”, Vol. I, by Faáy Woo Lii Wong (Joseph Lafon), 2001 VIII-2.”Introduction to Nso’ History”, by William Banboye, 2001
VIII-3. “The Ndzәәndzәv Dispute: From its beginning to its ending”, by Faáy Woo Lii Wong (Joseph Lafon), 1999
VIII-4. “Nso’ Historical Timeline: An Illustrated and Annotated History of the Paramount Tikar Kingdom (Fòndom) of Bui in Northwestern Cameroons”, by Sheèy Shiyghan Stephen Shemlon, PhD, (to be published).
VIII-5. “The Core Culture of Nso’”, by Paul N. Mzeka, 1980.
VIII-6. “Sov! Sov! Our Glorious Heritage”, by Rev. Fondzefee Charles Tangwa, 2008.
VIII-7. “Dr. Bernard Nsokika Fonlon: An Intellectual In Politics”, by Prof. Daniel Noni Lantum, 1992.
VIII-8. “Fon Nso’ Sehm Ataar (1947 – 1972): Father of Nso’ Development”, by Prof. Daniel Noni Lantum, 2000.
VIII-9. “Royal Succession In The African Kingdom Of Nso’: A Study In Oral Historiography”, by Bongfen Chem-Langhëë and Verkijika G. Fanso, 2008.
VIII-10. “A History Of The Church In Kumbo Diocese (1912-1988)”, by Joseph Lafon (Faáy Lii Wong), 1988. VIII-11. ” Ŋgonnso’ Cultural Festival 2010 Magazine”, by NSODA, 2010.

Titles and Cult Membership in Nso (Part 9)

If you missed part 1 to 3 you can get them part 1 here , part 2 here, part 3 here , part 4 here , part 5 here , part 6 here , part 7 here and part 8 here :

VI. NSO’ CULTURAL MODERNIZATION AND THE FUTURE
There has been a lot of talk lately about the rapid degradation and modernization of Nso’ culture. Some have postulated that this has been caused by the cheapening of the cults and the admission of foreigners to master our occultist secrets and thereby gain too much power and influence in the Nso’ Kingdom both within and outside the Palace Court. Some have pinpointed to specific examples of individual influences of these recent immigrants (still considered foreigners) in our Palaces and cult groups, and claimed it as the root cause of this degradation.
Looking back at Nso’ history we can note that immigration and the structured absorption of immigrants has been the greatest strength of Nso’ culture over the last 600 years. The reaction from those who consider themselves authentic Nso’ has as expected always been resistive to the integration and empowering of new comers. This is what happened when newbees like Ndzәәndzәv and Taaŋkùm were catapulted to the number two and three spots in the land while old Mntaár Lords like those of the original Mbiiŋgiy lineage were relegated to Tárnto’ status. It was even new comers like Tsenla’, Do’ Ruun and Do’ Ŋgvәn that became recognized as Mntaár Lords while some original Mntaár Lords could only be promoted to Faáy Won Jemer ve Fòn with their moribund Taa-Mbàn cult.

Such rapid promotion of the newcomers often led to serious resentment that at times resulted in assassinations like that of Faáy Sov (Foinso’) in the 1840s.
In this debate some have even questioned whether someone of Berber origin (Mbororo or Fulani) could be a senior ranking member of a Nso’ cult or even the Paramount Fòn of Nso’. When we look back at history we realize it may already have happened given the Nso’ Kingdom’s very efficient policy of assimilation and acculturation by at times forced intermarriage. It is very possible that a Mntaár Lord could have married a Berber woman whose daughter, grand-daughter or great-grand-daughter became the Fòn’s wife (wiyntoh) and produced the next King, afterall the only requirement was that the future King’s mother should be from the Mntaár lineage. Recent Fòns’ matrilineal lineages have been traced to Kitukela-Ndzeng, Dzekwa, Meluf, Nturkui-Kikaikelaki and Sangfir-Mbam. Given the integrated nature of the families in these communities with the Fulanis and Mbororos in the last few centuries, can we be so certain that none of these Fòns have Berber blood through their matrilineal lineages?
Pushing the argument further, we have many vibrant Mntaár sons in the diasporas like Wo Ngomrin and his siblings. If one of these young men marries someone of European or Asian descent who later produces a daughter or grand-daughter who becomes a wiyntoh, isn’t it conceivable that we could have a kimbang (white) Fòn? As Africans, thanks to Kenya we are proud to have an Obama in the American White House, so may be we should accept the possibility that decades from today a Cherokee (American Indian) King could proudly say: “My son ‘Ŋkarjume Thasungke Witko Nso’bani (Ŋkarjume Crazy Horse Nso’bani) is the Paramount King of the Powerful Tikar Kingdom of Nso’ in the African Savannah grass fields”.
VI-1. ROOT CAUSES OF NSO’ CULTURAL DEGRADATION
From the analysis we just made in this essay we posit that these apparent degradations cited above are just symptoms of a deeper desease that is eating into Nso’culture in this modern era, a disease that must be cured if the culture is to survive. In this last section we examine this disease and propose some remedies for it, in a bid to save Nso’ culture from eventual collapse.
The problems affecting Nso’culture are four-fold:
 The collapse of the system that maintained our traditional institutions (from the Palace through the cults to our individual lineages) structurally, morally and financially.
 The relative ease of induction into the cults which has led to an avalanche of unworthy Men of Title being admitted into the inner fold, with full powers and influence in the Palace Court.
 The collapse of the required mandatory period of training and apprenticeship for cult members as well as members of the inner Palace Court.
 The collapse of the system of checks and balances that has led to corruption within the Ŋwéròŋ and Ŋgírì cults as well as the inner Palace Court.
All these problems can be corrected if we can just go back to what used to obtain in the old days and modernize it appropriately as we propose below.
VI-2. REMEDY FOR THE MNTAÁR LINEAGES
Some of the skirmishes that have been encountered lately with the Mntaár Lords and their associated lineages which recently exploded in the Do’ Ŋgvәn Crisis of 2010 can be remedied by allowing the Mntaár lineages to belong to the Ŋwéròŋ cult, since most of them are free commoners. If this is accepted we can then allow the leading Three Aboriginal Mntaár Lords to belong to both Ŋwéròŋ and Ŋgírì cults as is the case with the other Seven Lords of the Court (Vibay ve Samba).
VI-3. CULT MEMBERSHIP INDUCTION UPGRADE
We propose that the conditions for admission into the Ŋwéròŋ and Ŋgírì cults should be severely revalued upwards. In 1970 it used to cost (in goats, fowls, palm wine, salt, oil, firewood, constuction and roofing materials, etc.) about 150,000FCFA (One Hundred and Fifty Thousand Francs CFA) to become a Sheèy wo Ngang Ŋwéròŋ or Sheèy wo Ngang Ŋgírì. If we compound this amount at an average 3.0% – 5.0% annual inflation rate (conservative estimate here) and add the 50% devaluation of the FCFA this amount is about 1,650,000FCFA (One Million Six Hundred and Fifty Thousand Francs CFA) today. If we tell any Tukov Kimbinin who wants to become a Sheèy wo Ngang today that it would cost him 1.5 Million FCFA to do it, he would think twice before accepting that tan, kibam or bar that he is trying to buy from a Sheèy or Taafu in the dark corners for 10,000FCFA. Tukov Kimbinin will even say NO if the Fòn calls him and tries to give him a title. It would also stop the Sheèy and Taafu from distributing titles indiscriminately.
Titles are a prerogative of the Fòn (even aSheèy who are kishers of lineages must be approved by the Fòn), so the traditional institutions must make sure that only the Fòn can award a title.
Such an amount will be very helpful in that it would provide enough for the other cult members to feast on and enough would be left over to distribute to Kibam ke Fòn, Kibam ke Vikiyntoh and Kibam ke Ŋwéròŋ and/or Kibam ke Ŋgírì. It will also be enough to provide for the upkeep and upgrade of all Palace institutions.
In addition, the cults will be ridden of unworthy candidates if they apply the same upgrades to their initiation and rank promotion fees.
The amount will be upgraded commensurately for aFaáy and aShúufaáy. For the inherited titles, the new Title Holders will use the opportunity to bring their families together to contribute for the enstoolment. Part of these family contributions will also go to the upgrade and upkeep of the new Title Holder’s compound, thus preserving a vital part of the Nso’ culture that is also falling apart (the lineage, clan and sub-clan compounds).

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